what are the causes of dysentery and dysentery
- Symptoms, Early Symptoms And Signs Of dysentery
- Nursing Care Of dysentery-nursing Precautions-dietary Taboos
Etiology of dysentery
Shigella dysenteriae belongs to Gram-negative Shigella, which can be divided into 4 groups (A, B, C, D) and 37 types, namely, 12 types of Shigella dysenteriae, 6 types of Shigella fulai, 18 types of Shigella baudi and 1 type of Shigella sonnei. Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei are the most common, which have strong resistance to the external environment, can survive for about 10 days on fruits and vegetables, and can survive for as long as 3 months in river water, and can multiply in large numbers at suitable temperature. It is not resistant to high temperature and sensitive to various chemical disinfectants. The main pathogenic factors of Shigella dysenteriae are invasiveness and toxin. After entering the digestive tract, invasive dysentery bacilli invade the epithelium of colon mucosa and multiply in cells, causing inflammation. Shigella can produce Shiga toxin (SHT) and Shiga toxin-like (SLT). SHT has cytotoxicity, enterotoxin and neurotoxicity.
Most of them are in summer and autumn, because the weather is hot and the temperature is high, which is suitable for the growth and reproduction of Shigella dysenteriae. There are many fresh fruits and vegetables on the market in summer and autumn. People like to eat fruits and vegetables raw, but they don't pay attention to cleaning and disinfection or think they are strong and eat them without washing their hands, so that germs enter their gastrointestinal tract together with food. In summer and autumn, the human body should dissipate more heat through the skin to maintain a balanced body temperature; The skin blood vessels are often in an expanded state, while the gastrointestinal blood vessels are relatively contracted, the blood flow is relatively reduced, and the human body's resistance to gastrointestinal infectious diseases is also weakened. In addition, catching cold, excessive fatigue, overeating and suffering from various acute and chronic diseases can easily induce dysentery when the human body's resistance declines.
The pathogenesis of toxic bacillary dysentery is mainly due to the abnormal strong reaction of the body to bacterial toxins, which leads to a series of pathophysiological obstacles such as acute microcirculation disturbance. The pathological changes of bacillary dysentery involve the whole colon and even ileum, especially sigmoid colon and rectum. According to the course of disease, it can be divided into acute and chronic stages.
After entering the digestive tract, Shigella dysenteriae can be quickly eliminated by the gastric juice of normal people, and a small number of people who escape the net will be further inhibited or rejected by the intestinal tract. Once the human body's defense function is weakened, Shigella dysenteriae will take advantage of it, causing chills and fever, often accompanied by headache and fatigue, abdominal pain and diarrhea in a short time, starting with watery feces, and quickly turning into mucous pus stool or purulent bloody stool, with less feces, more stools, obvious tenesmus and severe toxic shock, which is life-threatening. Children under 7 years old are prone to toxic bacillary dysentery in summer and autumn. The main symptoms are sudden high fever, convulsions, coma, etc., which must not be taken lightly.