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symptoms of trypanosomiasis, early symptoms and signs of trypanosomiasis

symptoms of trypanosomiasis, early symptoms and signs of trypanosomiasis

Trypanosomiasis symptoms

Early symptoms: local skin swelling with a red spot in the center

Late symptoms: fever, headache, arthralgia, limb pain, etc., ataxia, tremor, cramps, lethargy, lethargy, etc.

Related symptoms: Hepatosplenomegaly, trypanosomal "chancre", white halo, joint pain, itching nodules

1. Symptoms

1. African trypanosomiasis

In the early stage of the disease, there is usually no rash. Sometimes the skin at the bite may be red, swollen, tender, and form nodules. There may be white halo, which lasts for several days. Two weeks later, systemic symptoms such as fever, lymphadenitis, headache, arthralgia, skin rash, etc. began, and it was obvious. There may be transient edema of the eyelids, hands and feet, accompanied by pain.

Signs include disturbances in consciousness, variation in personality and behavior, mania, fingertips, tongue tremors, hand dances, ataxia, convulsions, deep hyperesthesia, and abnormal reflexes.

For example, one year after untreated disease, the central nervous system is affected mainly by meningoencephalitis, and the facial expression is slow as an earlier feature of advanced trypanosomiasis, purposeless itching, stupor and typical daytime sleep state, serious The person can suddenly fall into a deep sleep while eating or walking, and even remain sitting when lying down. Can cause death.

The symptoms of Gambia trypanosomiasis and Rhodesian trypanosomiasis are obviously different, but the clinical process of the former is relatively slow, and the symptoms of central nervous system damage can occur months or even years after infection; the latter has a rapid onset and severe infections. Symptoms appear within 2-4 weeks. It takes months or even years to develop late sleep symptoms in Trypanosomiasis Gambia; late central nervous system damage in Rhodesian Trypanosomiasis is manifested as toxic encephalopathy.

2. Chagas disease

Transient urticaria may occur in the acute stage, and the conjunctiva is often an invasion portal. One eyelid edema, conjunctivitis, lacrimal gland inflammation, and Romana sign (ie, conjunctivitis, upper and lower eyelid edema, and ipsilateral preauricular lymphadenitis) may occur. 2 to 3 weeks after infection, some systemic symptoms, such as fever, myalgia, local swelling and pain, liver and spleen enlargement, appear. Systemic lymphadenopathy.

Signs include aphasia, paraplegia, bilateral paralysis, and spastic paralysis.

The chronic phase is characterized by myocarditis, heart enlargement, esophagus or colon expansion, and brain damage is mainly meningoencephalitis.

2. Diagnosis

The diagnosis is made based on epidemiological data, serological examinations and clinical manifestations. The main criteria are as follows (in non-endemic areas, the criteria should be more strictly implemented):

1. Have lived in endemic areas.

2. Clinical manifestations such as fever, headache, joint pain, eyelid edema, etc.

3. The serological test of trypanosoma is positive.

4. Trypanosoma are found in blood slices, lymph node puncture fluid or cerebrospinal fluid

The most common puncture site for trypanosomiasis gambiae is the posterior triangular lymph node; for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis, peripheral blood should be collected during fever; if trypanosomiasis is not seen in blood slices, blood can be taken to inoculate guinea pigs for culture. After 2-4 weeks, trypanosomes can be found in the blood of guinea pigs.

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