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how to prevent oral cancer and nursing measures of oral cancer

how to prevent oral cancer and nursing measures of oral cancer

Prevention of oral cancer

Prevention of oral cancer

Oral cancer is a kind of chronic pathological process. Before it enters typical or obvious cancer lesions, it needs to go through several years or even more than ten years of precancerous lesions of oral mucosa. It is more common in the superficial part of oral cavity, which is beneficial for doctors and patients to check and find it directly, and is convenient for early diagnosis and timely prevention and treatment.

The World Health Organization has listed cancer prevention (including oral cancer) as one of the key public health projects, and its main methods have two categories.

1. Reduce pathogenic factors

The first is to ask the public not to get into the habit of smoking; Those who have smoked must give up smoking; Those who can't quit should reduce smoking as much as possible. Do not drink alcohol or drink less, reduce the alcohol concentration in alcohol, etc. Pay attention to the protection of ultraviolet radiation to prevent long-term direct sunshine. Do not eat hot and irritating food. Maintain good oral hygiene, remove residual roots and crowns, and grind sharp cusps or sharp edges of dentures in time to avoid adverse stimulation.

2. Improve your ability to understand precancerous lesions

Achieve early detection, early diagnosis and timely treatment to prevent the occurrence of canceration. After self-examination, those who find the following abnormal conditions should seek medical advice immediately. Abnormal conditions with canceration are: oral ulcer has not healed for more than two weeks, oral mucosa has white, red and dark spots, oral bleeding is repeated, the cause of bleeding is unknown, and numbness and pain in oral and maxillofacial region, pharynx and neck are unknown.

Prevention of relapse

The recurrence rate of oral cancer is as high as 40%. To improve the survival rate of patients with oral cancer, prevention of recurrence of oral cancer is as important as treatment of oral cancer.

The recurrence of oral cancer includes the recurrence of cancer in the tableland of oral cavity and the second tableland of oral cavity, and also includes the metastasis of cancer cells to cervical lymph nodes or distant organs (such as lung, liver, brain and whole body bones, etc.).

To reduce the chance of recurrence of oral cancer, the most important thing is that patients must completely remove all kinds of factors that lead to oral cancer after operation, such as smoking, drinking, chewing betel nuts, bad dentures in the mouth, etc., and never take any chances. In the author's clinical statistics, we found that up to 70% of the recurrent cases of oral cancer still have the habit of smoking, drinking or betel nut after the previous treatment.

Another important factor leading to the recurrence of oral cancer is the occurrence of the second tableland cancer in the oral cavity, which is also an important feature of oral cancer. Clinically, a case has been found in five different parts of the oral cavity, such as tongue, mouth floor, buccal mucosa, lips and upper jaw, which have developed cancer one after another within eight years, and there are many cases of two oral cancer parts. Oral cancer in the second tableland will occur, which is mainly caused by fieldcancerization in the oral region.

The phenomenon of regional carcinogenesis was first proposed by American scholar Slaughter, who observed that all tissues in the oral cavity are exposed to various carcinogenic factors (such as tobacco, alcohol and betel nut) at the same time, so they all have carcinogenic risks, but the occurrence time is different. In laboratory studies, we often find early oncogene changes in seemingly normal tissues around oral cancer specimens taken after surgery or other parts of the oral cavity far away from oral cancer, which can confirm that regional carcinogenesis is an important mechanism leading to the recurrence of oral cancer. At present, some drugs can reduce the cancerous effect of oral region, including high-dose carotene, vitamin A acid, etc., but they must be taken under the prescription of doctors. However, eating more green vegetables and reducing irritating foods in daily life will help.

Since most recurrent cases occur within five years after treatment, a follow-up period of at least five years after operation is very important.

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