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Diseases with abnormal gastrointestinal mucosa epithelium (30%):
Such as hypertrophic gastritis, gastric cancer, ulcerative colitis, localized enteritis, Crohn's disease, intestinal cancer or any other inflammation and ulcer lesions, plasma protein can penetrate into intestinal cavity from the diseased mucosa, and hypoproteinemia will be formed when it exceeds the compensatory ability of liver.
Diseases with abnormal gastrointestinal tract or systemic lymphatic vessels (25%):
There is lymphatic obstruction of thoracic duct, Constrictive pericarditis, Congestive heart failure, Intestinal lymphatic drainage is not smooth, Small intestinal lymphangiectasia, etc., Hypoproteinemia in constrictive pericarditis and congestive heart failure, Mainly because the increase of central venous pressure hinders the reflux of lymph in thoracic duct, which leads to the loss of intestinal protein. Small intestinal lymphangiectasia may be a congenital defect. After the rupture of dilated lymphatic vessels, plasma protein and lymphocytes can be lost from intestinal tract.
Diseases with increased capillary permeability (25%):
Such as colonic polyposis accompanied by telangiectasia, allergic gastrointestinal diseases, gastrointestinal mucosal metabolic disorders, etc., all have increased capillary permeability, resulting in protein loss, typically such as adult celiac disease.
There are four pathophysiological changes in hypoproteinemia: ① decreased acquired protein synthesis; Congenital protein synthesis decreased; ③ Protein catabolism increased; ④ Loss of excessive protein from urine and feces.
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