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Type I hypersensitivity: Also known as allergic allergy or immediate allergy. Due to the interaction between antigen and antibody (usually IgE) on the mediator releasing cells, Fo of IgE on the cells is bridged by fiber bypass, which leads to cell activation. The membrane of intracellular particles fuses with the cell membrane to form a pipeline, which releases some active mediators such as histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and slow reaction substance-A (SPS-A). These mediators can induce smooth muscle contraction, telangiectasia, increased permeability and increased glandular secretion. According to the target cells acted by these active substances, respiratory allergic reaction, digestive tract allergic reaction, skin allergic reaction or anaphylactic shock may occur. Common type I hypersensitivity reactions include penicillin allergic reaction, drug eruption caused by drugs, allergic gastroenteritis caused by food, allergic rhinitis caused by pollen or dust, bronchial asthma and so on.
Type II hypersensitivity: Also known as cytolytic allergy or cytotoxic allergy. When antigens on cells bind to antibodies, cells are destroyed due to the action of complements, phagocytes or K cells. For example, blood transfusion reaction, neonatal hemolytic reaction and hemolytic anemia caused by drugs all belong to type II hypersensitivity reaction.
Type III hypersensitivity: Also known as immune complex allergy. It is caused by medium-sized soluble antigen-antibody complexes deposited in capillary walls or tissues, activating complements or further attracting white blood cells. Type III diseases include partial glomerulonephritis after streptococcal infection, exogenous asthma and so on. Altus reaction is a local type ⅲ hypersensitivity reaction. After repeated injection of antigens (such as rabies vaccine and insulin), inflammatory reactions such as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis may occur locally.
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