causes of scrotal cancer, what are the causes of scrotal cancer
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The main cause of scrotal cancer: The cause is unknown
Causes of Scrotal Cancer
1. Causes of disease:
1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum is the first example that humans recognize that environmental carcinogens cause occupational cancer, and it is the basis for starting chemical carcinogenic experiments. In 1774, British surgeon Pott noticed some teenagers who had been working as chimney sweepers since childhood. Some of them often developed unhealed ulcers in the scrotum as adults. Pathologically confirmed that they were cancerous, he proposed that scrotal cancer and occupational problems relation. In 1784, Bell further discovered that workers engaged in operations containing soot and dust are also likely to develop this type of cancer. In 1922, Southern reported 141 cases of scrotal cancer, 69 cases were engaged in worsted textiles, and 22 cases had been exposed to asphalt or paraffin for a long time. At this time, because the chimney sweep work had been eliminated, only 1 case was a chimney sweeper. Since then, more and more reports have proved that scrotal cancer is related to occupations such as petroleum, tar, asphalt, worsted spinning, and machinery. Due to the lack of labor protection, the skin of the scrotum, perineum, penis, etc. is easily polluted by various mineral oils and dust and deposited in the skin folds with strong sebum secretion. Long-term exposure to the main carcinogen 3, 4 benzopyrene can cause cancer.
2. Since the process from exposure to carcinogens to cancer is a multi-factor and multi-step process, the occurrence of scrotal cancer often takes a long time. Take chimney sweeps as an example. It takes more than ten years for juveniles to be exposed to pollution until they become ill. The longest one is 68 years. The occurrence of cancer is also believed to be related to sensitivity, heredity and gene mutation. In recent years, with the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18 and 6/11 by PCR in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and scrotum and precancerous lesions (Queyrat erythema) (Burmer, 1993) Therefore, it has been considered that HPV may be a pathogenic factor of scrotal cancer, but most still believe that this factor is relatively small (Orihuela, 1995). Scrotal cancer is still more related to occupation and environmental factors.
1. Squamous cell carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma, referred to as squamous cell carcinoma), also known as epidermoid carcinoma (epidermoid carcinoma), carcinogenesis originates from epidermal keratinocytes and often occurs on the basis of chronic skin diseases and precancerous lesions, such as chronic inflammation , Exposure to chemical substances and sun damage, etc., can occur in the skin and mucous membranes of any part of the body.
2. The histopathological changes of scrotal squamous cell carcinoma are similar to squamous cell carcinoma of other parts of the body. The tumor is composed of irregular proliferation masses of squamous epithelial cells that invade the dermis. There are cells of different levels of differentiation in the mass, but the abnormality is not necessarily obvious only from the observation of the microscope. The diagnosis of cancer and malignancy is still mainly in the infiltration. Scrotal squamous cell carcinoma is usually classified into grades Ⅰ to Ⅳ according to differentiation and depth of tissue invasion. Cancer infiltration is mainly skin and rarely invades the contents of the scrotum.
3. About 1/2 to 3/4 of patients with scrotal cancer have swollen inguinal lymph nodes, but most of them are caused by inflammation. Only less than half are cancer metastases. It usually takes 6 to 12 months from the discovery of the primary cancer to the appearance of lymph node metastasis, and there may also be metastasis to the lymph node adjacent to the iliac vessels in the late stage.
4. The intraepidermal carcinoma in situ of the skin of the scrotum is called Bowen disease, which is a low-malignant squamous cell carcinoma. Its occurrence is related to ultraviolet radiation and exposure to chemical carcinogens. Sometimes it should be differentiated from erythroplasia of queyrat. The pathological changes mainly include thickening of the spinous layer of the epidermis, elongation of skin processes, and atypical hyperplasia of cell arrangement, with abnormal mitosis, tumor giant cells, and dyskeratosis cells.
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