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  4. the cause of penicillium marneffei, what are the causes of penicillium marneffei

the cause of penicillium marneffei, what are the causes of penicillium marneffei

the cause of penicillium marneffei, what are the causes of penicillium marneffei

Causes of Penicillium Marneffei

1. Causes of disease

PM is the only biphasic bacteria in more than 300 species of Penicillium, that is, it is hyphae at 25°C and yeast type at 37°C. The former can form red pigment in the medium, while the latter does not. It is worth mentioning that the transition time between the two phases is different. It is easier to change from yeast phase to hyphae. It only takes 1 to 2 days to grow broom-like branches and produce red pigment, while the latter transforms into the former. It takes more than 3 weeks to go through a short rod-shaped or deformed transitional period, so it cannot be determined prematurely as a uniphasic penicillium. Only the yeast type is pathogenic.

2. Pathogenesis

PM mostly invades patients with weakened immune function. It mainly invades the mononuclear phagocyte system, namely lung, liver, intestinal lymphoid tissue, lymph node, spleen, bone marrow, kidney and tonsil, etc. The lung and liver are the most serious. Infants and young children with immunodeficiency are easily spread through blood. In adults, the immune system is relatively healthy, the reproduction of PM is inhibited, the lesions are localized, and granulomas develop. Clinically, infants and young children are mostly disseminated PM disease, and the lungs are mostly interstitial pneumonia. It is more common in adults with multiple abscesses, as well as liver, intestinal lymph nodes, nerve tissue, and endocrine glands. The latter two are rarely affected. The pathological section showed changes in pyogenic granuloma, with central necrosis and a large number of mononuclear macrophages infiltrating it. PAS or Grocott fungal staining method can show that fungal PM is hidden in macrophages. The three major characteristics of mulberry cell cluster, sausage cell and transverse wall are the main histomorphological changes of PM.

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