the cause of duodenal carcinoid, what are the causes of duodenal carcinoid
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The main cause of duodenal carcinoid: may be related to chromaffin cells
1. Causes of disease
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1. Burke et al. reported 99 cases of duodenal carcinoid in the first segment, 34 cases in the second segment, 41 cases in the second segment, 15 of them are located around the ampulla, and 2 cases in each of the third and fourth segments are not recorded. Location, 13 cases of tumors were multiple.
2. Pathological form
(1) Gross morphology: Duodenal carcinoid is a yellowish indurated tumor, located under the mucosa, and the diameter of the tumor is generally no more than 2cm. Burke et al. reported 99 cases of duodenal carcinoids with tumor diameters ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 cm, with an average of 1.8 cm.
(2) Tissue morphology: The cancer cells are square, columnar, polygonal or round in the microscope, with eosinophilic granules in the cytoplasm. The nucleus is small and uniform, and mitotic figures are rare. Observed under the electron microscope, the cancer-like cells contained large and multi-shaped particles. The silver staining reaction was positive. The histological type of duodenal carcinoid is usually a mixture of glandular, substantial, island and rare trabecular structures. Most carcinoids located in the second segment contain a large number of psammoma bodies (Psammoma Bodies), and are mainly adenoid structures. Immunohistochemical staining often shows that the tumor contains hormones such as somatostatin and gastrin, which may be clinically associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or von Recklinghausen disease.
3. The way of metastasis Duodenal carcinoid tumors are generally low-grade malignant tumors with slow growth and less metastasis. Carcinoid tumors can be metastasized by lymph or blood, and can penetrate the serosal membrane and infiltrate directly into the surrounding tissues. Burke et al. reported that 21% of duodenal carcinoids metastasized. The common sites of metastasis are lymph nodes and liver, and a few metastasizes to the mesentery and lungs. The tumor is infiltrating into the muscle layer, the tumor body is greater than 2 cm and the presence of cleavage is a dangerous sign of metastasis.
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